African Journal of Integrated Health volume 9, issue 2, December 2019

African Journal of Integrated Health Vol 9: N° 2; 2019

Table of contents

 Case Studies

  1. Mouba JF, Djengue C, Sima Olé B. Ntsame S, Ntsame A, Auge T, Megnier Mbo M, Koko J : Cas de condylomes ano-génitaux probablement lié a un abus sexuel chez l’enfant à Libreville: J. of Integ. Health 2019, 09 (02): 01-04

    Research articles
  2. Fokam P, Nwagbara I C², Palle J¹, Arabo S³, Ndifor E, Pisoh C: Epidemiology of paediatric fractures in Douala, cameroon, a five-year review: J. of Integ. Health 2019, 09 (02): 05-09
  3. Njunda AL and Nkai G: Flora on cell phones of health personnel in the different units of the hospitals in the Buea: J. of Integ. Health 2019, 09 (02): 10-17
  4. Tendongfor N, Melong Nogning AB, Agbor AV, Nguemo NJL, Tendongmo M, Njedock L: Prevalence, knowledge and perception of overweight in adolescents in Fako, Cameroon: J. of Integ. Health 2019, 09 (02): 18-27
  5. Nguemaïm NF, Nsoh EF, Kamga FHL, Samé-Ekobo A: Malaria and its relationship with the ABO blood groups in asymptomatic blood donors at the Bamenda Regional Hospital, Cameroon: J. of Integ. Health 2019, 09 (02): 28-35
  6. Shiti FA, Halle-Ekane G, Ngouakam H, Mbah EC, Eko S, Assob NJC: Prevalence and Neonatal Outcomes of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Mycoplasma Infections in Pregnant Women Attending the Limbe Regional and District Hospitals, Cameroon: J. of Integ. Health 2019, 09 (02): 36-44
  7. Domngang Noche C; Otema AM, Kohpe Kapseu S, Bilong Y, Kagmeni G, Bella AL: Profil et determinants des traumatismes oculaires en milieu professionnel au cameroun: à propos de 226 cas. J. of Integ. Health 2019, 09 (02): 45-51
  8. Aka Any-Grah AAS, N’Guessan C, Koffi AA, Dally LI, N’guessan A, Lia GJA, Tuo AN, Soma KA, Konan F, Aka N, Effo KE, Koua Kadio BD, Akoubet Oyogode A, Kablan L, Kouassi Konan C, Chougouo R, Kouamouo M: Preformulation study of extract based on trunk bark of Sacoglottis gabonensis bail. urb. (Humiriaceae): J. of Integ. Health 2019, 09 (02): 52-61

Case studies


1. Cas de condylomes ano-génitaux probablement lié à un abus sexuel chez l’enfant à Libreville

A case of anogenital warts probably due to sexual abuse in a child in libreville

Mouba JF1*, Djengue C1, Sima Olé B1. Ntsame S2, Ntsame A1, Auge T1, Megnier Mbo M1, Koko J1


1Département de Pédiatrie, Faculté de Médecine, Université des Sciences de la Santé, Libreville –Gabon

2Département de Dermatologie, Faculté de Médecine, Université des Sciences de la Santé, Libreville –Gabon

*Correspondence: E-mail : / Tel: 00241 06 62019



Les condylomes correspondent à des verrues ano-génitales secondaires à une infection par Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), virus à ADN. Chez l’adulte, la transmission est essentiellement sexuelle. Chez l’enfant, trois modes de transmissions existent : périnatale (in utero et lors de l’accouchement), horizontale (auto-et hétéro inoculation dite « innocente »), et dans le cadre de sévices sexuels. Aussi, la découverte de condylomes ano-génitaux chez un enfant nécessite-t-elle une enquête précise afin de déterminer le mode de contamination et écarter l’hypothèse d’abus sexuels.

Les génotypes d’HPV les plus fréquents sont 6 et 11 (83%), plus rarement, 16 et 18 (< 10%). Au Gabon, aucune étude n’a encore été réalisée sur cette pathologie qui touche également les enfants.

Or, les enfants de tout âge peuvent développer des condylomes ano-génitaux, avec un pic entre zéro et quatre ans ; les filles sont deux fois plus souvent atteintes que les garçons. Les maladies sexuellement transmissibles chez l’enfant secondaires aux sévices sexuels sont peu documentées.

Nous rapportons ici, une observation de condylomes ano-génitaux chez une enfant âgée de 2 ans, reçue en consultation dans le service. La prise en charge a été pluridisciplinaire associant l’équipe de dermatologie et un traitement par la Condyline a été administré à l’enfant avec des résultats satisfaisants.

Mots-clés: condylomes ano-génitaux, Sévices sexuels, Enfants, Libreville-Gabon


Genital warts correspond to anogenital warts secondary to infection by Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), DNA virus. Transmission in adults is primarily sexual. In children, three modes of transmission exist: perinatal (in utero and during childbirth), horizontal (auto-and hetero inoculation called "innocent") and in the context of sexual abuse. Also, the discovery of ano-genital warts in a child does require a precise investigation in order to determine the mode of contamination and to rule out the hypothesis of sexual abuse. The most common HPV genotypes are 6 and 11 (83%), more rarely, 16 and 18 (< 10%). In Gabon, no study has yet been carried out on this pathology which also affects children.

However, children of any age can develop anogenital warts, with a peak between zero and four years; girls are twice as often affected as boys. Sexually transmitted diseases in children secondary to sexual abuse are poorly documented.

We report here, an observation of anogenital warts in a child aged 2 years, received in consultation in the service. The care was multidisciplinary associating the dermatology team and treatment with Condyline was administered to the child with satisfactory results.

Keywords: Anogenital warts-Sexual abuse-Children-Libreville-Gabon

Research articles

  1. A comparative study on the predictive value of epidemiology of paediatric fractures in Douala, Cameroon, a five-year review

Fokam P1,4*, Nwagbara IC², Palle J¹, Arabo S³, Ndifor E3, Pisoh C5

1Department of Surgery and Specialties, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea

2Department of Surgery, College of medicine, Imo State University, Nigeria

3Department of Surgery, Laquitinie Hospital Douala, Cameroon

4Department of Surgery, General Hospital, Douala, Cameroon

5Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bamenda

*Corresponding author: Dr Fokam Pius, Coordinator of Surgery FHS, University of Buea. Head of operating theatre, General Hospital, Douala. Email:


Background: Children are at high risk of injury with up to one in four children sustaining an injury annually. With fractures having a considerable impact on daily living and activities of the affected children, they represent a major public health problem. Their incidence can be reduced substantially through a better understanding of the fracture processes. However, the strategies for prevention and management must be based on the analysis of the local situation.

Objective: To determine the pattern and presentation of childhood traumatic fractures at Laquintinie Hospital Douala (LHD) and General Hospital Douala (GHD).

Methodology: A retrospective study was conducted at the Orthopaedic/Traumatology unit, and Emergency Unit of these two majorhospitals. It consisted of the review of Medical records of all cases of children (aged 1-17yrs) fractures presented and managed at the unit from January 2011- November 2015.

Results: We had a total number of 507 patients with fractures, aged 1-17yrs in both hospitals. The total number of paediatric surgical admissions was 3083 giving us a prevalence of about 16.4% for paediatric fractures in Douala. A total 364 patients with complete files were retained. School children (6-10yrs) were the most affected age group, with 39.0% (142/364) and males 233 (64.01%) were more affected than females 131(35.99%). Road traffic crash was the most common aetiology with 176(48.38%) followed by falls 120 (32.97%), sports 43(11.81%), domestic accidents 19 (5.22%) and others 6 (1.65%) such as gunshots, fights and assaults.

Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of fractures in children. Most of these injuries occur on the road and from falls. These injuries are highly preventable hence strategies maybe directed at the government, parents, schools and the public in general to reduce the burden of such fractures in our setting.

Keywords: Fracture, Children, Epidemiology


  1. Flora on cell phones of health personnel in the different units of the hospitals in the Buea

Njunda LA1* and Nkai G1

1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Science; University of Buea, Cameroon

*Corresponding author: Longdoh Anna Njunda.Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Science; University of Buea, Cameroon; P.O. Box 63, Buea Cameroon.

Email:;  Tel.: 00237679861720.


Background: Mobile phones have become one of the most indispensable garget of professional and social life. These devices have the potential to be colonized by bacteria and transmit diseases. Thus, this study investigates the prevalence of microbial contamination of mobile phones of healthcare personnel and mobile phone used in the different units of the hospital in the Buea health area.

Methods: Pre-tested Structural questionnaire was filled by each participant; surfaces of 140 mobile phones randomly selected among healthcare workers were swabbed and inoculated on blood agar and Macconkey agar. Gram reaction and some biochemical testing were done to identify the type of bacteria.

Results: Out of the 140 mobile phones of healthcare workers, 135 (96.4) were contaminated. The bacteria isolated from these mobile phones were: Staphylococcus epidermidis (35.7), Staphylococcus aureus (24.8), Gram positive bacillus spp (17.1), Gram negative bacillus spp (13.8), Spore forming gram positive bacillus spp (4.3), Enterobacteriaceae spp, (2.9), Citrobacter spp (1) and Enterococcus spp (0.5). Concerning phone usage when at the hospital, 114 (29.2) used it for calling and texting, 84(21.5) surfed the internet, 61(15.6) took photos and videos, 56(14.3) downloaded documents, 30 (7.7) played audios and videos, and 46(11.85) did other things (game, accessing calendar).

Conclusion: The mobile phones of healthcare workers are heavily colonised by pathogenic bacterial and thus serve as a potential source of transmission. There is therefore a need for some restrictions on mobile phones use in healthcare settings during working hours and regular cleaning of mobile phones.

Keywords: Mobile Phones, Healthcare Workers, Pathogenic bacterial, Contamination


  1. Prevalence, Knowledge and Perception of overweight in adolescents in Fako, Cameroon

Tendongfor N1*, Melong NAB, Agbor AV3, Nguemo NJL1, Tendongmo M4, Njedock L5

1Department of Public Health and Hygiene, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, P. O. Box 63, Buea Cameroon

2Hopital de District de Bonassama, Douala ; Cameroon

3Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, P. O. Box 63, Buea Cameroon.

4Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, University of Buea

5Department of Agronomic and Applied Molecular Sciences, Faculty ofAgronomy and Vetarry Medicine, University of Buea, P. O. Box 63, Buea Cameroon.

*Corresponding author: Tendongfor Nicholas; Department of Public Health and Hygiene, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, P. O. Box 63, Buea Cameroon. Tel: (+237) 676 92 76 90. E-mail: ntendongfor@gmail. com


Background: Obesity is one of the most serious health problems affecting adolescents. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, knowledge and perception of overweight among adolescents in Fako division, Cameroon.

Methods: A cross-sectionalstudy was conducted in 18 schools (primary or secondary?) in the Fako Division. Demographic data, knowledge of overweight, prevention and consequences of overweight; eating habits, sedentary activities and anthropometric measurements (height and weight) were collected from students aged 10 to 19 years. The WHO 5 – 19 years Z-score scale was used to categorize adolescent.

Results: Of the 1229 students enrolled in the study, 909 (74%) had normal weight, 228 (18.5%) were overweight, 65 (5.3%) were obese, 17 (1.4%) with thinness and10 (0.8%) with severe thinness. Girls were more overweight and obese than boys. The prevalence of overweight was associated with gender, children eating habits and sedentary activities. Starchy food (52.6%), fatty foods (48.7%) and oily foods (9.3%) were cited as predisposing to overweight. Students reported obesity (25.5%), hypertension (8.8%), cardiovascular diseases (6.7%), diabetes (2.6%) and others (6.5%) as consequences of overweight. On the prevention of overweight, 54.4% of students reported physical activities, 31.5% control of diet, 22.7% avoidance of fatty foods and 3.7% avoidance of starchy and carbohydrates food stuff.

Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescent in Fako is high. Adolescents have good knowledge on overweight and its prevention but poor knowledge on its consequences. A school-based educational program on the promotion of healthy nutrition and physical activities could effectively complement students’ knowledge and change inbehaviour.

Keywords: Prevalence, Overweight, Obesity, Adolescent, Fako


  1. Malaria and its relationship with the ABO blood groups in asymptomatic blood donors at the Bamenda Regional Hospital, Cameroon

Malaria and its relationship with the ABO blood groups in asymptomatic blood donors at the Bamenda Regional Hospital, Cameroon

Le paludisme et sa relation avec les groupes sanguins ABO chez les donneurs de sang asymptomatiques à l’Hôpital Régional de Bamenda, Cameroun

Nguemaïm NF1*, Nsoh E Fru2, Kamga FHL2, Samé-Ekobo A3

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bamenda

2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bamenda

3Faculty of Medicine and Biomedicales Sciences, University of Yaounde I

*Auteur correspondant: Nguemaïm Ngoufo Flore, Email:


Background: Blood transfusion saves the lives of patients with severe anaemia. Unfortunately, it can also transmit blood-borne pathogens. Blood donors are not routinely screened for malaria parasites prior to donation, therefore the risk of transmission of malaria parasites to blood recipients and the likelihood of the development of clinical disease remains high. This study aimed to determine the malaria prevalence rate, as well as the type, the level of parasitaemia and the association of infection with ABO blood groups among presumably healthy blood donors at the Bamenda Regional Hospital (BRH) blood bank.

Material and methods: Across sectional study was conducted from June to July 2019 at the Bamenda Regional Hospital. Blood collected from voluntary donors was analyzed for the detection and quantification of malaria parasites using microscopic examination of thin and thick films. The determination of the blood group was done using the tile method. A pretested questionnaire was used to gather socio-demographic data. A Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 was used for data analysis.

Results: A total of 336 donors participated in this study. The mean age was 32.5 ± 8.7 years. A total of 52 donors (15.48%) were positive for malaria parasite. Most of them (78.57%) were males, while 21.43% were females with no malaria positive case. The infection percentage was significantly higher in the males compared to females (p = 0.004). The infection percentages were 8.33%, 3.57%, 2.38% and 1.19% for the blood groups O, A, B and AB respectively. However, the difference in infection percentage between the various blood groups was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Malaria prevalence among asymptomatic blood donors at the BRH blood bank was 15.48%. The mean parasitaemia was 316±14 parasites /mL of blood. Plasmodium falciparum was the only specie found. Individuals of blood groups O, A and B were respectively more susceptible to malaria as compared with individuals of blood group AB. The routine screening of blood donor sample for malaria parasite is therefore imperative and the role of ABO blood groups in the malaria infection needs to be clarified.

Keywords: Malaria, ABO blood groups, Asymptomatic blood donors, Bamenda


Contexte: La transfusion sanguine sauve la vie de patients atteints d’anémie sévère. Malheureusement, elle peut aussi transmettre des pathogènes véhiculés par le sang. Les donneurs de sang ne sont pas systématiquement dépistés pour les parasites du paludisme avant le don, et par conséquent le risque de transmission des parasites du paludisme aux receveurs de sang et la probabilité de l’apparition de maladies cliniques demeure élevé.

Objectif: Déterminer le taux de prévalence du paludisme, ainsi que le type, le niveau de parasitémie et l’association de l’infection avec les groupes sanguins ABO parmi les donneurs de sang présumément en bonne santé à la banque de sang de l’Hôpital Régional de Bamenda (HRB).

Matériel et méthodes: Une étude transversale a été menée de juin à juillet 2019 à l’Hôpital Régional de Bamenda. Le sang prélevé auprès de donneurs volontaires a été analysé pour la détection et la quantification des parasites du paludisme à l’aide d’un examen microscopique de frotis minces et épais. La détermination du groupe sanguin a été faite à l’aide de la méthode de la tuile. Un questionnaire prétesté a été utilisé pour recueillir des données sociodémographiques. Le logiciel statistique «Statistical Package for Social Sciences» (SPSS) version 20.0 a été utilisé pour l’analyse des données.

Résultats: Un total de 336 donneurs ont participé a cette etude. l’âge moyen était de 32,5±8,7 ans. Un total de 52 donneurs de 15,48 % étaient infectés par le parasite du paludisme. La plupart d’entre eux (78,57 %) étaient des hommes, tandis que 21,43 % étaient des femmes n’ayant aucun cas de paludisme positif. Le pourcentage d’infection était significativement plus élevé chez les hommes que chez les femmes (p = 0,004). Les pourcentages d’infection étaient de 8,33 %, 3,57 %, 2,38 % et 1,19 % pour les groupes sanguins O, A, B et AB, respectivement. Toutefois, la différence dans le pourcentage d’infection entre les divers groupes sanguins n’était pas statistiquement significative.

Conclusion: La prévalence du paludisme chez les donneurs de sang asymptomatiques à la banque de sang de l’HRB était de 15,48 %. La parasitémie moyenne était de 316±14 parasites /mL de sang. Plasmodium falciparum était la seule espèce rencontrée. Les individus des groupes sanguins O, A et B étaient respectivement plus sensibles au paludisme que les individus du groupe sanguin AB. Le dépistage systématique du parasite du paludisme chez les donneurs de sang est donc impératif et le rôle des groupes sanguins ABO dans l’infection du paludisme doit être clarifié.

Mots clés: Paludisme, groupes sanguins ABO, donneurs de sang asymptomatiques, Bamenda


  1. Malaria and its relationship with the ABO blood groups in asymptomatic blood donors at the Bamenda Regional Hospital, Cameroon

Prevalence and Neonatal Outcomes of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Mycoplasma Infections in Pregnant Women Attending the Limbe Regional and District Hospitals, Cameroon

Shiti FA1, Halle-Ekane G2*, Ngouakam H3, Mbah EC4, Eko S4, Assob NJC4

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Cameroon

2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Health Science, University of Buea, Cameroon

3Department of Public Health and Hygiene, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Cameroon

4Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, University of Buea, Cameroon

*Corresponding Author: Halle-Ekane Gregory. Email; halle-ekane. edie@ubuea. cm


Background: Information on the prevalence and Neonatal outcomes of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma spp in pregnancy is limited and interventions against these infections have received little or no attention in many Low-Income Countries. Hence, the impact of these infections in pregnant women remains a public health concern. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and neonatal outcomes of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma spp in pregnant women at the Limbe Regional and District Hospitals, Cameroon.

Materials and methods: This was a hospital based prospective study conducted from April to June 2018 in Limbe, South West Region of Cameroon. A total of 250 pregnant women selected consecutively participated in the study. Samples of cervical mucus were collected using a sterile cotton swab and speculum. Specimens were analysed for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma Spp using the Rapid Diagnostic Kit for Chlamydia and Mycoplasma Identification Enumeration and Sensitivity Kit respectively. The neonatal outcomes were obtained after childbirth. Data obtained was analysed using SPSS version 20.0. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and mycoplasma spp was found to be 6.9% and 3.3% respectively, with a co-infection rate of 1.6%(4)) among participants. Risk factors such as age, number of sexual partners, practice of oral or anal sex and history of miscarriage were significantly associated to these infections. The prevalence of neonatal outcomes such as preterm birth, stillbirth, low birth weight, pneumonia, conjunctivitis, jaundice and fever was significantly higher in Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma spp-positive participants compared to their negative counterparts (p <0.001).

Conclusion: Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma spp infections are associated with adverse outcomes in neonates. There is therefore a pressing need the inclusion of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma spp tests as routine check-up test for pregnant women is paramount in order to better manage the infection before it affects the baby.

Key words: Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma spp, neonatal outcomes, pregnant women, Limbe, Cameroon.


  1. Profil et determinants des traumatismes oculaires en milieu professionnel au Cameroun: à propos de 226 cas

Profile and determinants of workplace eye injuries in Cameroon: about 226 cases

Domngang Noche C1*, Otema AM1, Kohpe Kapseu S1, Bilong Y2, Kagmeni G2 and Bella AL2

1Institut Supérieur des Sciences de la Santé, Université des Montagnes, Bangangté, Cameroun

2Faculté de Médecine et des Sciences Biomédicales, Université de Yaoundé 1, Cameroun

*Auteur correspondant: Domngang Noche Christelle (MD, MSc), Institut Supérieur des Sciences de la Santé ; Université des Montagnes, BP 208 Bangangté, Cameroun, Tel: +237 699 936 709 ; E-mail:


Introduction: Les traumatismes oculaires professionnels sont des lésions affectant l’oeil survenant sur le lieu ou sur le chemin du travail. Bien que des études portant sur les traumatismes aient été réalisées au Cameroun, il existe un manque de données relatives aux traumatismes oculaires en milieu professionnel. Notre étude avait pour but de déterminer le profil des traumatismes oculaires professionnels dans les entreprises du Cameroun ainsi que leurs déterminants.

Méthodologie: Une étude transversale a été réalisée sur la période du 1er Janvier 2016 et le 31 Décembre 2018 dans les entreprises GRUMCAM, HEVECAM ET SOSUCAM. A travers un questionnaire semi-structuré, le dossier médical et un examen physique, les données suivantes ont été collectées: données sociodémographique et cliniques, types de traumatismes et leur prise en charge. La classification de Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System (BETT) a été utilisée pour déterminer le type de traumatisme.

Résultats : La prévalence des traumatismes oculaires en milieu professionnel était de 5,02%. L’âge médian des 226 participants était de 43 ans et la prédominance masculine (86%). Les trvailleurs agricoles constituaient le profil professionnel le plus représenté. Les types de traumatismes les plus retrouvés étaient les brûlures chimiques par l’ammoniaque, les corps étrangers et les contusions. Au total, 2/5 ne possédaient pas d’équipement de protection industriel (EPI). L’absence de port d’un EPI était significativement associée aux brûlures (p = 0,03) et aux corps étrangers (p = 0,01). L’amétropie (p = 0,04) et les traumatismes oculaires (p = 0,04) étaient associés à la rupture du globe oculaire.

Conclusion : Le renforcement des mesures préventives et la sensibilisation du personnel sur le port d’un EPI devraient être recommandés aux délégués du personnel.

Mots-clés: traumatisme oculaire professionnel, équipement de protection industriel, classification BETT, épidemiologie


Background: Occupational eye injuries are lesions involving the eye and at the job site or on the way to work. Although studies on trauma have been conducted in Cameroon, there is a paucity of data on eye trauma on the workplace. The purpose of our study was to determine the profile of occupational eye injuries in national companies and their determinants.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out over the period from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2018 in three national companies GRUMCAM, HEVECAM and SOSUCAM. Through a semi-structured questionnaire, the medical record and a physical examination, the following data

were collected: socio-demographic and clinical data, types of trauma and circumstances of the accident, management of the trauma. The Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System (BETT) classification was used to determine the type of eye trauma.

Results: The prevalence of occupational eye injuries among workers was 5.02%. The median age of the 226 people recruited for the study was 43 years and a male predominance was observed (86%). Famer constituted the most represented occupational profil. The most common types of trauma were chemical burns by ammonia, foreign bodies and contusions. In total, 2/5 did not have industrial protective equipment (IPE). The absence of IPE was significantly associated with burns (p = 0.03) and foreign bodies (p = 0.01). Ametropia (p = 0.04) and eye trauma (p = 0.04) were associated with eyeball rupture.

Conclusion: The reinforcement of preventive measures and the sensitization of staff on the wearing of IPE should be recommended to staff representatives.

Keywords: occupational eye injury, industrial protective equipment, BETT classification, epidemiology


  1. Preformulation study of extract based on trunk bark of Sacoglottis gabonensisBail. Urb. (Humiriaceae)

Aka Any-Grah AAS1*, N’Guessan C1, Koffi AA1, Dally LI1, N’guessan A1, Lia GJA1, Tuo AN1, Soma KA1, Konan F2, Aka N2, Effo KE3, Koua Kadio BD3, Akoubet Oyogode A4, Kablan L5, Kouassi Konan C1, N’Kuitchou-Chougouo KRD 1, Kouamouo M1

1Laboratory of Galenic Pharmacy, Biopharmacy and Pharmaceutical Legislation, UFR of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences of Abidjan, Félix Houphouët-Boigny University, Côte d’Ivoire

2Pasteur Institute of Côte d'Ivoire, Cocody Antenna, Antibiotics, Natural Substances and Microorganism Resistance Monitoring Unit (ASSURMI), Côte d'Ivoire

3Laboratory of Pharmacology, UFR of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences, Félix Houphouët-Boigny University, Côte d'Ivoire.

4Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Botany, Plant Biology and Cryptogamy, Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences UFR, Félix Houphouët-Boigny University, Côte d'Ivoire

5UFR of Biological Science, Peleforo Gon Coulibaly University, BP 1328 Korhogo, Côte d'Ivoire

*Corresponding Author: Dr AKA épse ANY-GRAH Armelle Adjoua Sandrine; Laboratory of Galenic Pharmacy, Biopharmacy and Pharmaceutical Legislation, UFR of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences of Abidjan. 08 BP 1490 ABJ 08. armelleci@yahoo. fr; Tél: 05784848/ 77340563/ 03903897



Background: Sacoglottis gabonensis is a medicinal plant traditionally used for the treatment of ulcerative wound in Buruli ulcer. However, in view of the limited efficacy observed with the traditional use of this plant, we proposed to study the feasibility of an improved galenic form based on this plant.

Methods: Our preformulation work consisted of determining the physico-chemical and galenic characteristics as well as verify the antimicrobial activity of the aqueous extract of the trunk bark of Sacoglottis gabonensis. The biological characterizations of the extract and antioxidant activities were also carried out using standard methods.

Results: The botanical identification, the diagnosis tests of the powder as well as microscopic analysis has confirmed the quality of the plant. The aqueous extract of the bark was obtained with an extraction yield of 8.30%. Water solubility was 5.5 g/l at 27°C, pH 4.5 at 24.3°C compatible with skin. Moisture content was 9%. It has shown good antioxidant activity and bactericidal action against strains 122c / 11 and 292c / 13 of staphylococci with MBC / MIC ratios less than or equal to two. The bacteriostatic effect was observed for strain 1393c / 13 of Staphylococci sp and the only strain of Escherichia coli (1089c / 12) with an MBC/MIC ratio greater than two. The activity was also demonstrated on all five strains of Mycobacterium ulcerans studied from the concentration of 20 mg/ml.

Conclusion: The results obtained are encouraging. A topical dosage form based on this extract could be an alternative for the treatment management of Buruli ulcer.

Key words: Buruli Ulcer, Mycobacterium Ulcerans, Opportunistic Germs, Preformulation